SHAHEED-E-KHAMIS AYATULLAH MUHAMMAD BAQIR AS-SADR


Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr

Full name

Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr

Born

March 1, 1935(1935-03-01)
al-Kazimiya, Iraq

Died

April 9, 1980 (aged 45)
Baghdad, Iraq

School/tradition

Usuli Twelver Shia Islam

 

Shahid-e-Khamis Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 – April 9, 1980) was an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a cleric, a philosopher, and ideological founder of Islamic Dawa Party born in al-Kazimiya, Iraq. He is the father-in-law of Muqtada al-Sadr and cousin of both Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr and Imam Musa as-Sadr. His father Haydar al-Sadr was a well respected high ranking shi'a cleric. His lineage goes back to Muhammad, through the seventh Shia Imam, Musa al-Kazim.

 

His father died in 1937, leaving the family penniless. In 1945 the family moved to the holy city of Najaf, where al-Sadr would spend the rest of his life. He was a child prodigy who, at ten, was delivering lectures on Islamic history, and at eleven, he studied logic and wrote a book to refute philosophy.[1] Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr completed his religious teachings at religious seminaries under al-Khoei and Muhsin al-Hakim at the age of 25 and began teaching.

While teaching he became a prominent member of the Iraqi Shia community, and was noted for his many writings. His first works were detailed critiques of Marxism that presented early ideas of an alternative Islamic form of government. Perhaps his most important work was Iqtisaduna, one of the most important works on Islamic economics. This work was a critique of both socialism and capitalism. He was subsequently commissioned by the government of Kuwait to assess how that country's oil wealth could be managed in keeping with Islamic principles. This led to a major work on Islamic banking that still forms the basis for modern Islamic banks.

He also worked with Sayyid Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim in forming an Islamist movement in Iraq. This attracted the attention of the Baath Party, which resulted in numerous imprisonments for the Ayatollah. He was often subjugated to torture during his imprisonments, but continued his work after being released. One of the founders of modern Islamist thought he is credited with first developing the notion, later put in operation in Iran, of having western style democratic elections, but with a body of Muslim scholars to ensure all laws corresponded with Islamic teachings.

In 1977, he was sentenced to life in prison following uprisings in Najaf, but was released two years later due to his immense popularity. Upon his release however, he was put under house arrest. In 1980, after writing in the defense of the Islamic Revolution, Sadr was once again imprisoned, tortured, and executed by the regime of Saddam Hussein. His sister, Amina Sadr bint al-Huda, was also imprisoned, tortured, and executed. It has been alleged that Sadr was killed by having an iron nail hammered into his head[2] and then being set on fire.

During the execution of Saddam Hussein, chants of "Long live Mohammed Baqir Sadr!" were heard being chanted by some of the Shi'a guards. CNN article

Political Philosophy: Wilayat Al-Umma

Mohammad Baqir Al-Sadr's political philosophy, known as Wilayat Al-Umma (Governance of the people), set out his view of a modern day Islamic state. Using his mastery of the Quran and his innovative subject-based approach to Quranic exegesis, Al-Sadr extracted two concepts from the Holy text in relation to governance: khilafat al-insan (Man as heir or trustee of God) and shahadat al-anbiya (Prophets as witnesses). Al-Sadr explained that throughout history there have been '…two lines. Man’s line and the Prophet’s line. The former is the khalifa (trustee) who inherits the earth from God; the latter is the shahid (witness).'[3].

Al-Sadr demonstrated that khilafa (governance) is ‘a right given to the whole of humanity’ and explained it to be an obligation given from God to the human race to ‘tend the globe and administer human affairs’. This was a major advancement of Islamic political theory. Al-Sadr stated that the legitimacy of a government in an Islamic state comes from the people, and not from the clerics. Al-Sadr explained that throughout history there have been '…two lines. Man’s line and the Prophet’s line. The former is the khalifa (trustee) who inherits the earth from God; the latter is the shahid (witness)'[3].

While Al-Sadr identified khilafa as the obligation and right of the people, he used a broad-based exegesis of a Quranic verse[4] to identify who held the responsibility of shahada in an Islamic state: First, the Prophets (anbiya’); second, the Imams, who are considered a divine (rabbani) continuation of the Prophets in this line; and lastly the marja’iyya (see Marja).

While the two functions of khilafa (governance) and shahada (martyrism; supervision) were united during the times of the Prophets, the two diverged during the occultation so that khilafa returned to the people (umma) and shahada to the scholars[6].

Al-Sadr also presented a practical application of khilafa, in the absence of the twelfth Imam. He argued the practical application of the khilafa (governance) required the establishment of a democratic system whereby the people regularly elect their representatives in government:

'Islamic theory rejects monarchy as well as the various forms of dictatorial government; it also rejects the aristocratic regimes and proposes a form of government, which contains all the positive aspects of the democratic system.'

He continued to champion this point until his final days:

'Lastly, I demand, in the name of all of you and in the name of the values you uphold, to allow the people the opportunity truly to exercise their right in running the affairs of the country by holding elections in which a council representing the ummah (people) could truly emerge.' [8]

Al-Sadr was executed by Saddam Hussein in 1980 before he was able to provide any details of the mechanism for the practical application of the shahada (martyrism) concept in an Islamic state. A few elaborations of shahada can be found in Al-Sadr’s works.

In his text ‘Role of the Shiah Imams in the reconstruction of Islamic society’, Al-Sadr illustrates the scope and limitations of shahada by using the example of the third Shi’i Imam, Hussein ibn Ali (the grandson of the Prophet), who stood up to Yazid, the ruler at the time. Al-Sadr explains Yazid was not simply going against Islamic teachings, as many rulers before and after him had done, but he was distorting the teachings and traditions of Islam and presenting his deviated ideas as Islam itself. This, therefore, is what led Imam Hussein to intervene to challenge Yazid in order to restore the true teachings of Islam, and as a consequence laid down his own life. In Al-Sadr’s own words, the shahid’s (witness – person performing shahada or supervision) duties are ‘to protect the correct doctrines and to see that deviations do not grow to the extent of threatening the ideology itself'.

List of works

Jurisprudence

  • Buhuth fi Sharh al- 'Urvah al' Wuthqa (Discourses on the Commentary of al- 'Urvah al-Wuthqa), 4 volumes.
  • Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Minhaj al-Salihin (Annotation of Ayatullah Hakim's Minhaj al-Salihin), 2 volumes.
  • Al-Fatawa al-Wazihah (Clear Decrees).
  • Mujaz Ahkam al-Hajj (Summarized Rules of Hajj)
  • Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Manasik al-Hajj (Annotation of Ayatullah Khui's Hajj Rites).
  • Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Salah al-Jumu'ah (Annotation on Friday Prayer)

Fundamentals of the law

  • Durus fi Ilm al-Usul (Lessons in the Science of Jurisprudence), 3 Parts.
  • Al-Ma'alim al-Jadidah lil-Usul (The New Signposts of Jurisprudence).
  • Ghayah al-Fikr (The Highest Degree of Thought)

Philosophy

Logic

Theology

Economics

  • Iqtisaduna (Our Economics).
  • Al-Bank al-la Ribawi fi al-Islam (Usury-free Banking in Islam).
  • Maqalat Iqtisadiyyah (Essays in Economy).

Qur'anic commentaries

  • Al-Tafair al-Mawzu'i lil-Qur'an al-Karim - al-Madrasah al-Qur'aniyyah (The Thematic exegesis of the Holy Qur'an).
  • 1Buhuth fi 'Ulum al-Qur'an (Discourses on Qur'anic Sciences).
  • Maqalat Qur'aniyyah (Essays on Qur'an).

History

  • Ahl al-Bayt Tanawwu' Ahdaf wa Wahdah Hadaf (Ahl al- Bayt, Variety of Objectives Towards a Single Goal).
  • Fadak fi al-Tarikh (Fadak in History).

Islamic Culture

  • Al-Islam Yaqud al-Hayah (Islam Directive to Life).
  • Al-Madrasah al-Islamiyyah (Islamic School)
  • Risalatuna (Our Mission).
  • Nazrah Ammah fi al-Ibadat (General View on Rites of Worship).
  • Maqalat wa Muhazrat (Essays and Lectures)

Articles

  • "Al-'Amal wa al-Ahdaf" (The Deeds and the Goals): Min Fikr al- Da'wah. no. 13. Islamic Da'wah Party, central propagation, place and date of publication unknown.
  • "Al-'Amal al-Salih fi al-Quran" (The Proper Deeds According to Qur'an): Ikhtrna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • Ahl al-Bayt: Tanawu' Adwar wa-Wihdat Hadaf (The House Hold of the Prophet: Diversity of roles but unified goal). Beirut: Dar al-Ta'ruf, 1985.
  • Bahth Hawla al-Mahdi (Thesis on Messiah). Beirut: Dar al- Ta'ruf, 1983.
  • Bahth Hawla al-Wilayah (Thesis on Rulership). Kuwait: Dar al- Tawhid, 1977.
  • "Da'watana il al-Islam Yajeb an Takun Enqilabiyah," (Our Call for Islam Must be a Revolutionary): Fikr al-Da'wah, no. 13. Islamic Da'wah Party, central propagation, place and date of publication unknown.
  • "Dawr al-A'imah fi al-Hayat al-Islamiyah" (The Role of Imams in Muslims' Life): Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • "al-Dawlah al-Islamiyah" (The Islamic State), al-Jihad (14 March 1983): 5.
  • "Hawla al-Marhala al-Ula min 'Amal al-Da'wah" (On the First Stage of Da'wah Political Program): Min Fikr al-Da'wah. no. 13. Islamic Da'wah Party, central propagation, place and date of publishing unknown.
  • "Hawla al-Ism wa-al-Shakl al-Tanzimi li-Hizb al-Da'wah al- Islamiyah" (On the Name and the Structural Organization of Islamic Da'wah Party): Min Fikr al-Da'wah. no. 13. Islamic Da'wah Party, central propagation, place and date of publication unknown.
  • "al-Huriyah fi al-Quran" (Freedom according to Quran): Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • "al-Itijahat al-Mustaqbaliyah li-Harakat al-Ijtihad" (The Future Trends of the Process of Ijtihad): Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1980.
  • al-Insan al-Mu'asir wa-al-Mushkilah al-Ijtima'yah (The contemporary man and the Social Problem).
  • "al-Janib al-Iqtisadi Min al-Nizam al-Islami" (The Economic Perspective of Islamic System): Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • Khalafat al-Insan wa-Shahadat al-Anbia' (Vicory role of man, and Witness role of Prophets): al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat. Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • Khatut Tafsiliyah 'An Iqtisad al-Mujtama' al-Islami (General Basis of Economics of Islamic Society): al-Islam Yaqud al-Hayah. Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • Lamha fiqhiyah Hawla Dustur al-Jumhuriyah al-Islamiyah (A preliminary jurisprudence basis of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic): al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • Madha Ta'ruf 'an al-Iqtisad al-Islami (What do you know about Islamic Economics). al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • Manabi' al-Qudra fi al-Dawlah al-Islamiyah (The Sources of Power in an Islamic State). al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • "al-Mihna" (The Ordeal). Sawt al-Wihdah, no. 5, 6, 7. (n.d).
  • Minhaj al-Salihin (The Path of the Righteous). Beirut: Dar al- Ta'aruf, 1980.
  • Muqaddimat fi al-Tafsir al-Mawdu'i Lil-Quran (Introductions in Thematic Exegesis of Quran). Kuwait: Dar al- Tawjyyh al-Islami, 1980.
  • "Nazarah 'Amah fi al-'Ibadat" (General Outlook on Worship): al-Fatawa al-Wadhiha. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'aruf, 1981.
  • "al-Nazriyah al-Islamiyah li-Tawzi' al-Masadr al-Tabi'iyah" (Islamic Theory of Distribution of Natural Resources): Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • "al-Nizam al-Islami Muqaranan bil-Nizam al-Ra'smali wa-al- Markisi" (The Islamic System Compared with The Capitalist and The Marxist Systems). Ikhtarna Lak. Beirut: Dar-al Zahra', 1982.
  • "Risalatuna wa-al-Da'wah" (Our Message and Our Sermon). Risalatuna. Beirut: al-Dar al-Islamiyah, 1981.
  • "Al-Shakhsiyah al-Islamiyah" (Muslim Personality): Min Fikr al-Da'wah al-Islamiyah (Of the Thoughts of Islamic Da'wah). no. 13. Islamic Da'wah Party, central propagation, place and date of publication unknown.
  • Surah 'An Iqtisad al-Mujtama' al-Islami (A Perspective on the Economy of Muslim Society). al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • "al-Usus al-Amah li-al-Bank fi al-Mujtam al-Islami" (The General Basis of Banks in Islamic Society). in al-Islam Yaqwod al-Hayat Iran: Islamic Ministry of Guidance, n.d.
  • "Utruhat al-Marja'iyah al-Salihah" (Thesis on Suitable Marja'iyah). In Kazim al-Ha'iri, Mabahith fi 'Ilm al-Usul.Qum, Iran: n.p., 1988.
  • "al-Yaqin al-Riyadi wa-al-Mantiq al-Waz'i" (The Mathematic Certainty and the Phenomenal Logic): Ikhtrna Lak. Beirut: Dar al-Zahra', 1982.
  • "Preface to al-Sahifah al-Sajadiyah" (of Imam Ali ibn Hussein al-Sajad) Tehran: al-Maktabah al-Islamiyah al-Kubra, n.d.

Notable colleagues and students

Political Following

  • Islamic Dawa Party - Iraq Organisation
  • Islamic Dawa Party
  • SCIRI
  • Hizbollah
  • Amal Movement

Books

  • Iqtisaduna
  • Falsafatuna