Muhammad bin Ali (a.s.)
Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu 'Abdillah
Laqab (Title): Al Jawad
Birth: He was born at Madina in 195 A.H.
Martyrdom: He died of poison at Baghdad in the year
220 A.H. and is buried near his grandfather at Kazimiyyah in Iraq.
The Prophet (PBUH) had said:
"My father be sacrificed on the mother of the 9th Imam who will be a pure
and pious Nubian."
Imam Musa Kazim (PBUH) had
told one of his companions that his daughter-in-law (Sabika) would be one of
the most pious of women and to give her his salaams. She came from the same
tribe as the Prophet's wife - Mary Copt who bore the Prophet his son Ibrahim
(who died in infancy).
Imam Muhammad taqi (PBUH) was born when his father was 45 years old. Till
then Imam Reza (PBUH) had constantly been taunted that he had no children.
When the 9th Imam was born, a brother of Imam Reza (PBUH) was angry because
he would lose out in inheriting the Imam's property and in his jealousy
spread a rumor that Imam Reza (PBUH) was not the father. He was eventually
proved wrong by a person who could tell parentage.
The 9th Imam was 5 years old
when his father was called to Tous by Ma'muon Rashid to be his "crown
prince". When Imam Reza (PBUH) was leaving he saw his son putting sand in
his hair. He asked why and the young Imam replied that this was what an
His titles, life &
He became an Imam at the age
of 9. Ma'muon Rashid thought that as all the rulers before him had oppressed
the Imams and their schemes had backfired that he would try to bribe the
Imams. He tried to make the 8th Imam his crown prince and give him power and
wealth but that also backfired.
He now tried to use power and wealth with the 9th Imam again but from a much
younger age thinking that he would be able to influence him. His main
purpose was also to make sure that the 12th Imam (whom he knew would bring
justice to the world) would be from his progeny and therefore intended to
marry his daughter Ummul Fazl to the Imam. Ma'muon still continued
oppressing the family and followers of the Ahlul-bayt (PBUT).
Ma'muon called the young Imam (PBUH) to Baghdad from Medina and offered his
daughter. This infuriated his family (Abbasids). To prove to them the
excellence of Imam even at a young age he arranged a meeting between Imam
and the most learned of men at that time -Yahya bin Athkam.
It was a grand occasion with some 900 other scholars present. Imam (PBUH)
was first asked by Yahya:
What is the compensation (kaffara) for a person in Ehraam who hunted and
killed his prey?"
Imam replied that there were many more details required before he could
answer the question:
Did the Muhrim (one in Ehraam) hunt in the haram or outside?
Did the Muhrim know Sharia or not?
Did he hunt intentionally or not?
Did he hunt for the first time or was this one of many times?
WPBUH he free or a slave?
WPBUH his prey a bird or an animal?
WPBUH it big or small?
Had he hunted by day or by night?
WPBUH he baligh or not?
WPBUH he repentant or not?
WPBUH his ehraam for Hajj or Umra?
Yahya was stunned. He looked
down and started sweating.
Ma'muon asked the young Imam to answer the question, which he did, and then
Imam asked Yayha a question which he could not answer. The Abbasids admitted
defeat and Ma'muon took the opportunity to offer his daughter to Imam. Imam
(PBUH) read his own Nikah (the khutba of which is used today) with the Mehr
of 500 dirhams. Imam wrote a letter to Ma'muon that he would also give Ummul
Fazl Mehr from the wealth of The World to Come (Aakhira ). This was in the
form of 10 duas which were for fulfilling any hajaat (desires) Thus his
title is Al-Jawad (the generous one).
* These duas are found in Mafatihul Jinaan (pg 447 - In margin)
Imam lived for a year inBaghdad with Ummul Fazl. She was very disobedient to
Imam. When she found out that Imam had another wife (from the progeny of
Ammar-e-Yasir) and that there were also children, she was jealous and angry
realizing that her father's plan had failed. She complained to her father
who also realized that his plan, to keep the 12th Imam in his progeny, had
failed. He was enraged and in his rage he drank heavily and went to the 9th
Imam's house and attacked Imam with a sword. Both Ummul Fazl and a servant
saw the attack and believed Imam was dead. Ma'muon on waking next morning
realized the consequences of his attack and was thinking of arranging the
disposal of Imam's body when he saw Imam well without a scratch on him. He
was confused and asked Imam who showed him an amulet which is called Hirze
Jawad. Imam told him it was from his grand mother Bibi Fatima Zahra (PBUH)
and kept the wearer safe from all except the angel of death. Ma'muon asked
Imam for it and Imam gave him one.
Now Ma'muon was scared and tried a new tactic. He tried to deviate Imam by
sending him beautiful girls and musicians. When he realized nothing was
working he let Imam return toMedina.
Imam used this time to prepare the masails of Taqleed and Ijtihaad in
preparation for the 12th Imam knowing that both the 10th and the 11th Imam
would spend most of their lives in prison. He also prepared the people of
Medina teaching true Islam knowing that this would be the last time they
would be able to receive guidance directly from an Imam for a long time.
Ummul Fazl continuously complained of Imam to her father who sent her
Ma'muon died in 218 a.h. and was succeeded by his brother Mo'tasam Billah.
He openly announced that all Shias were not Muslims. He said it was required
for people to kill and prosecute Shias and to destroy property belonging to
Ummul Fazl now started complaining to her uncle who was sympathetic to her.
Mo'tasam called Imam toBaghdad. He asked Imam to pass judgment of how to
punish a thief. Imam said only fingers could be cut as the palms were for
Allah (PBUH in Qur'an - it is one of the wajib parts to touch the ground
during sajda). PBUH this decision was contrary to the decision of the other
Scholars and it strengthened the position of the Shias. The other scholars
complained to Mo'tasam.
Death & Burial
With instigation from both
the scholars and Ummul Fazl, Mo'tasam sent poison which Ummul Fazl put in
Imam's drink and gave it to him. Imam died on 29th Dhulqa'ada at the age of
25 years and is buried near his grandfather in Kadhimain. His son the 10th
Imam, Imam Hadi (PBUH) buried him.
Summary of Imam's Work
It is he who prepared and
wrote books for the masails of Ijtihaad and Taqleed which were essential to
prepare believers for the ghaibat of the 12th Imam.